Cranes have made our lives a lot easier, especially for people involved in the construction, design, and automotive business. With the help of these, the heavy loads can be lifted with ease and efficiency. Lifting and handling different sorts of materials or machinery requires the use of lifting and handling equipment like cranes. In any factory or plant, the cranes are considered as an asset. Read more about crane terminology.
The cranes are used to lift heavy weights or machines to make the work easier. It saves time and proves to be productive for the workplace. Lifting and handling such heavy things cannot be done by the workforce or employees present in the factory. For such purposes, cranes are required, which makes the work easier. It also prevents injuries or accidents and the employees feel more secure. Injuries to the employees will lower the efficiency of the work and ruin the working environment.
It, therefore, becomes inevitable to know about some crane terminologies related to the different industrial cranes so that safety can be ensured at the workplace. It is essential for the employer and the employees to be well aware of the crane terms that are connected with the operation of cranes so that they have enough knowledge about the working of the cranes and thus ensure efficiency at the workplace and safety is maintained during crane operations.
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Crane Terminology- 10 Most Common Industrial Crane Terms
Let’s understand some industrial crane terminologies to make your work convenient and hassle-free.
- Counterweights- Counterweights prevent the tipping of the crane. It helps in maintaining a balance of the weight being carried out by the crane. It is generally attached with a stick and automatically balances the weight of the lifted load. It helps in lifting the load with efficiency, saves energy, and counterbalances the weight of the load taken up by the crane.
- Boom- Boom is that part of the crane that is just like an arm of the crane. It helps in holding the load and adjusts the load by bringing it closer or away from the crane by lowering or raising the boom. It is like a telescopic and fixed arm used to move objects.
- Load block- It refers to the collection of all the accessories of the crane-like hook, swivel, bearing, pins and frames, and sheaves connected by the hoisting ropes.
- Lift- Lift is the maximum distance from the floor that can be safely moved by the hook or magnet.
- Wheelbase- It is the distance from centre to centre wheels.
- Signaller- This is one of the personnel present on the worksite that helps the operator of the crane by showing him the obstructions by signaling using specific signals. He communicates with the operator through certain signs and gestures used in the crane industry.
- Slings- Slings are like the support system of the crane. They support the hook to hold heavy loads. They are made of different materials like wire rope, chain rope, and synthetic material.
- Explosion Proof crane- It prevents any kind of electric explosion or harm from electrical ignition. The crane is designed with electrical components that prevent any blast from the elements.
- Critical load- This refers to the load which if moved or handled without proper care and instructions can cause risk to the safety of the crane system. It requires the feature of single failure proof in order to fix any possible failure without disturbing the rest of the load.
- Outrigger- This provides the feature of stability to the crane by increasing the footprint of the crane so that the level of the crane can be maintained while operating. The organisation should not forget to leave space for outriggers whenever planning to install or hire a crane.
Here are some Overhead Crane and Hoist Terminology
Abnormal Operating Conditions: Extremely high or low temperatures, corrosive gases, dusty or damp atmospheres, and dangerous locations are examples of environmental factors that are unfavourable, toxic, or detrimental to the activity of a crane or hoist.
Adjustable or Variable Voltage: The motor supply voltage can be changed using this method of control.
Anchor Bolt: A jib crane is held in place by a bolt with its head lodged in masonry or concrete and its threaded portion protruding.
ANSI: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a non-profit
Appointed: The employer or a representative of the employer assigns particular duties.
ASCE Rail: The bridge rides on the runway rails on top of moving cranes.
Automatic Crane When a crane is powered, it follows a predetermined sequence or cycles.
Auxiliary Hoist: A supplemental hoisting unit with a lower capacity and, in most cases, a faster speed than the main hoist.
Axial load: In a jib crane, the overall vertical force is applied to the supporting structure. Axial load = (crane's total weight) + (crane's axial load) (design factor x weight of load)
Auxiliary Girder (Outrigger): To reduce the torsional forces that such a load might otherwise exert on the main girder, a girder arranged parallel to the main girder is used to support the frame, motor base, operator's cab, control panels, and other objects.
Bearing Life Expectancy: An anti-friction bearing's L-10 life is the minimum expected life, measured in hours, of a group of bearings operating at a given speed and load. The bearing's average expected life is about five times that of the L-10.
BHN: Brinell hardness number is a material hardness measurement.
Boom (Overhead Crane): A horizontal member that allows the load to be hoisted and lowered from a location other than directly underneath the hoist drum or trolley. On a trolley, the boom is installed.
Boom (Gantry Crane): A retractable or raised trolley runway extension is often used to gain clearance for gantry travel.
Box Section: The four-sided rectangular cross-section of girders, end trucks, or other representatives.
Brake: A system on a hoist or Crane that, rather than a motor, uses power or friction to stop or delay motion.
Branch Circuit: The circuit conductors between the circuit's final overcurrent system and the outlet (s).
Cab Operated Crane: An operator in a cab on the bridge or trolley controls the Crane.
Cantilever Gantry Crane: The bridge girders or trusses of a gantry or semi-gantry Crane extend transversely beyond the crane runway on one or both sides.
CMAA: America's Crane Manufacturers Association Collectors are instruments that collect current from runway conductors by making contact with them. The bridge's mainline collectors are used to transport electrical current from the runway conductors.
Double Girder: Two end trucks, two bridge girders, and the trolley hoist assembly make up an overhead crane. The trolley travels over rails that run along the tops of the bridge girders.
Drive Girder; The side of the girder on which the bridge drive machinery is mounted.
ECL (Equivalent Center Load): One or more loaded wheels of the end truck or trolley trigger successful loading in the middle of the beam.
Floor-Operated Crane: An operator on the floor or on an isolated platform controls a pendant or nonconductive rope crane.
Gantry Crane The bridge for holding the trolley or trolleys is rigidly balanced on one or more legs running on fixed rails, similar to a top-running crane.
Hoist Chain A hoist's load-bearing chain.
Hydraulic Brake: A hydraulic brake that allows for the slowing or stopping of motion.
Longitudinal Stiffeners: To avoid web buckling, horizontal members are fixed to the bridge girder's web.
Curved Monorail: A Curved Monorail System transports goods along a fixed, curved route on a single beam. To allow for more floor space, the monorail system is mounted to an existing overhead structure.
Switches: A Monorail System with Switches enables the product to be transported along a set route to any location inside the facility on a single beam.
Span (Jib Crane): The span of a jib crane is the distance between the pivot point and the end of the boom. It's worth noting that "span" is longer than "working span" or "hook coverage."
Storage Bridge Crane: Long-span gantry crane for bulk material storage; bridge girders or trusses are rigidly or non-rigidly supported on one or more legs. It may have one or more cantilever ends that are fixed or hinged.
It is vital to ensure the safety of the workers at the workplace. Especially in such industries which use heavy lifting equipment like cranes. The more the information, the better it is to handle the crane. Apart from the crane terminology, the workers should also be educated about the standard crane hand signals to ensure maximum safety. Therefore, it is essential to have good knowledge of the industrial crane terms so that the functioning And operation of the cranes can be understood in a better way.