Any city's skyline will almost always include a few tower cranes, which are among the most prominent pieces of construction equipment. Tower cranes are used by construction businesses to lift large items like steel and concrete. Tower cranes are also used to transport large items such as acetylene torches, motors, and generators.
Construction tower cranes are the centre of attention on job sites all around the world. Most large construction sites rely on them as the backbone and workhorse. If they aren't working, the workplace isn't operating at maximum efficiency. That is why tower crane installation is being given so much relevance. If you want to get crane installation in Abu Dhabi, this guide might help you.
What Is a Tower Crane?
On construction sites, a construction tower crane is a popular piece of lifting equipment. The crane is nicknamed a tower crane because it pivots around a massive tower-like structure. The jib and counter jib are supported by the tower mast, strengthening the cabling, trolley, and hook that lifts the load.
Need for Tower Crane Installation in a Building
Today's tower cranes enable construction businesses to work more quickly and efficiently. These heavy-lifting essentials are required for completing even the most demanding chores with ease. Consider a big construction site where there isn't a single tower crane in sight. Even with all of the workers on a job site, an electrical generator could not be lifted up many flights of stairs.
Without tower cranes, the construction sector would be decades behind. We would lose not only the spectacular buildings of modern cities but also their bridges, elevated railways, and other amenities. Construction sites would use a lot more energy than they do now.
The Working of Tower Cranes
A tower crane is a common sight on building sites all around the world. Their seemingly endless skyscrapers rise hundreds of feet above the ground to dot the skylines of nearly every major metropolis. When a project necessitates heavy lifting at great heights, these massive machines come in handy, but they can be costly to purchase. As a result, it's typical for contractors to search for tower cranes for rent.
Types of Tower Cranes
There are as many different types of tower cranes as there are lifting requirements. The most prevalent tower crane types used on building sites are listed below.
- A hammerhead crane has a horizontal jib that is fixed in place and a trolley assembly that travels the length of the jib to position the hook. Some hammerhead tower cranes have pendant lines between the jib/counter jib and a tower top assembly, while others have a "flat-top" design that does not have a tower top or pendant lines.
- A jib that rotates up and down with the hook connected to the jib end is used in this sort of crane—luffing the jib up or down positions the hook. This crane is very handy on confined construction sites. When not in use, a Luffing jib crane's jib is placed at a higher boom angle, reducing the radius required for weathering to less than half of the maximum practicable reach.
- A self-erecting crane is a smaller tower crane installed on the job site without the need for an assist crane. This type of crane will typically extend its mast before unfolding its jib using hydraulic cylinders permanently attached to the crane. These cranes cannot be connected to the structure and have limited hook heights, but they are ideal for smaller or shorter-term projects where the fixed expenses of constructing a standard "tower" would be prohibitive
What Is the Location of a Tower Crane in a Building?
We may refer to a location outside or inside the construction project floor plan, depending on the crane positioning on the job site.
- If the crane is positioned outside the construction plan floor- In terms of construction progress, it is preferable to locate a tower crane outside the constructed structure's floor plan. Such a crane does not obstruct construction progress, and the date of its removal can be postponed if necessary with no detrimental impact on the development process. It also allows for crane installation ahead of the start of foundation work.
- Crane positioning outside the floor plan of the constructed structure allows for easy crane material delivery, and an excellent view of the transport means from the crane operator's cabin during material collection, which speeds up crane operation and enhances safety. Existing subterranean infrastructure services in front of the structure and their protection zones (high-pressure gas pipelines, sewage collector, etc.), the outermost underground section of the structure, or construction pit for basement complex structure may pose issues in this sort of crane arrangement.
- The tower crane must then be moved away from the structure to a distance that poses no threat to subsurface infrastructure services or the integrity of the construction pit wall. Special foundations, such as micro pilots, may be intended to stop load on the construction pit wall.
- If the crane is positioned inside the construction plan floor- If the crane must be placed within the floor plan of a built structure, it is usually put on the structure's underlying structure, which is appropriately adjusted. A portion of the base structure, where the crane will be moored, can be built ahead of time, reducing construction time. The crane's horizontal reach is reduced due to its positioning within the structure.
- As a result, its beam may be shorter than a crane situated outside the structure's floor plan. The placement of cranes within the structure, on the other hand, makes progress more difficult. In most circumstances, assembly holes for the crane tower must be left in ceiling structures. Static measurements are taken to determine the location of assembly holes. The size of the assembly hole must also allow for safe crane disassembly.
- Assembly holes can be avoided by installing cranes in elevator shafts, which must be large enough to accommodate the crane tower and its assembly and disassembly and the shaft walls' formwork. As a result, elevator shafts are rarely suitable for crane positioning. Within the floor plan of a built structure, a tower crane may be installed directly on the ground and relocated to allow for continued building after a specific structure portion is completed. This construction approach is ideal for projects with multiple pieces, such as low-rise structures. Crane relocation is only possible once all heavy sections of the construction structure have been installed, which may cause delays in the construction process.
- There could also be a concern if there is any subsurface water. The installation of the abovementioned crane obstructs the completion of the base structure and creates a watertight basin. Due to crowded site conditions and development progress, a situation may arise where a tower crane must be mounted atop a completed ceiling structure. This technique is utilised, for example, to speed up construction by installing support cranes, with the possibility of later relocating the tower crane.
- A structural designer evaluates the ceiling structure and, if necessary, reinforces or supports it using struts. The crane load is transferred onto numerous ceiling slabs under each other, potentially into the base structure, by pillars.
Tower cranes have made it possible to transport the steel and concrete required for skyscraper buildings safely and efficiently, resulting in iconic skylines. It's feasible to drive about and see cranes with a fresh perspective for their outstanding engineering if you have a thorough grasp of construction cranes.
This Tower Crane Installation Method Statement establishes the sequence and explains the control processes to be followed.
Crane Tower Assembly
When it comes to cranes and maneuvers used to assemble, disassemble, and hoist a tower crane, it's essential to follow the safety and protection guidelines and maintain strict control over each step. The tower crane is being built once the components have been unloaded on the construction site. This procedure entails erecting and mounting the crane on its foundations and location in order for it to perform the function for which it was designed.
All suggestions in the manufacturer's manual must be followed by the assembly and disassembly staff, which must be supplemented by written instructions from the professional in charge of the assembly (university professional or technician with experience in assembling tower cranes, you can opt for Technomax’s crane installation services in Abu Dhabi).
The following information regarding the crane must be included in the written order issued by the responsible professional:
- Brand, type, and model are all important considerations.
- Initial and final mounting heights in meters.
- Pen and counter-feather lengths are measured in millimeters.
- A variety of factors, including the required air counterweight's location, size, and mass.
- The initial and final weights' characteristics (geometry, dimensions, mass, and ordering).
- The lifting cable has a number of branches.
- A portion of the conductors and the supply voltage
- If the level of autonomy is exceeded, the bracing program will be implemented.
How Does the Crane Installation Process Take Place?
Because cranes and maneuvers require stable circumstances, the following must be completed before beginning the assembly of a tower crane:
· The study of foundation soil mechanics.
· The basal ballasts and aerial counterweights can be made of metallic, concrete, or bulk materials. Still, they must be kept in a closed and sealed metallic box, according to the crane installation manual's technical standards. The mass of the counterweights and ballasts created by blocks must be indicated by a mark printed in easily legible letters. The mass of the counterweight to be used must be checked each time the crane is erected, and these must always be fastened to the tower crane's structure.
The right construction and consolidation of the anchors. The construction of foundations that efficiently convey the maximum amount of gas to the ground must be estimated and developed by qualified university specialists. Rails and other road elements must be installed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and rail fastening must be adequate for the materials of the structure that supports them.
Tower Crane Safety Precautions
The following tolerances will be allowed in the initial crane installation of the straight and horizontal roads when cranes and maneuvers are used:
Longitudinal leveling: The surface of the same line of rails must be free of imperfections of more than 1/1000 of the track width.
Transverse leveling: The height difference between the two lines of rails on the same track should not exceed 1/1000 of the track's width.
How to Build a Tower Crane?
The distance between the axis is:
- The gauge and tolerances must match those specified in the crane manufacturer's instructions. The head of each rail must be located between two parallel vertical planes with a separation equal to the nominal width of the head plus 5 mm.
- The slope between rail junctions should be no more than 2 mm.
- Separation of rail joints: Determined based on the rail's dilatation calculation.
- The maximum transverse leveling of each rail's foot should be 3 / 1,000, about a horizontal plane.
- The state of the translation track: The flat surface of the rail's head must be centered on the plane of symmetry.
When exposed to the wind, rolling tower cranes must have suitable means of immobilization to avoid any movement. These devices must be set up by the instructions in the manufacturer's manuals.
Tower Crane Installation Process
Assembly Procedure: In general, the tower crane installation process begins with the construction of the tower's base, followed by the installation of the first section, which includes the diagonals that connect it to the base and a portion of the basal ballast, and finally, the slide. Find the cabin and the tower head.
The pen and counter jib are then attached. More basal ballast is added after the final counterweight is installed. The crane's boom is used to install new parts until the crane reaches its final height.
A system in which the tower-cabin-head unit is narrower in section than the rest of the shaft is another option to enhance the height. The open-sided new portion is overlaid on the tower that surrounds the top unit.
Then it climbs up into this newly armed portion.
Steps for the Assembly of a Tower Crane
- The climbing equipment is prepared after the cart and the basal ballast has been assembled.
- The climbing equipment is positioned on the tower's base section.
- The rotating portion, which includes the turning track, cabin, tower head, and ascending portion, is put together and joined to the assembly tower.
- The counter jib has been installed.
- The crane hook is used to secure the tower section to the mounting crosspiece.
- The climbing system's components. The support sleeper, the assembly tower, and the hydraulic equipment
The crane installation systems have significantly improved throughout time in order to make the process faster, more pleasant, and simpler, lowering the cost of the operation.
All of the assemblies are put together using quick joints that don't require any prior alignment.
Technomax has an established track record of associating with some of the industry's most prestigious names. Their on-time, cost-effective, and transparent services are just a few of the compelling reasons to work with them. When it comes to Industrial Crane Installation in Abu Dhabi and other services like Maintenance, Condition Monitoring, Machinery Diagnostic Services, Distribution of Electrical, Mechanical, and Instrumentation Products, and Stocking and Supply of Maintenance, Repair, and Operation Spare Parts, Technomax is the name to remember.
Their skilled and devoted team works tirelessly to attain perfection to provide best-in-class products and crane installation in Abu Dhabi and other crane-related services. Technomax is pleased to provide their mechanical, structural, and electrical knowledge to help you with your crane installation in Abu Dhabi. They offer professional specialists, a wide range of expert services, and high-quality bespoke or component-built cranes. You can count on them because they have over 15 years of experience in the overhead crane sector.
They place a strong emphasis on customer service, so you can trust them to meet your needs and surpass your expectations. They can assist you with everything you require!